AP World History Period 2 Study Guide

Mauryan Empire
a geographically extensive Iron Age historical power in ancient India, ruled by the Maurya dynasty from 322 – 185 BCE.
Buddhism
a path of practice and spiritual development leading to Insight into the true nature of reality. practices like meditation are means of changing yourself in order to develop the qualities of awareness, kindness, and wisdom.
Arabic numerals
any of the numerals 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9. Arabic numerals reached western Europe through Arabia, replacing Roman numerals, by about AD 1200, but probably originated in India.
Qin Dynasty
the first unified, multi-national and power-centralized state in the Chinese history. It lasted from 221 BC to 207 BC.
Han Dynasty
the second imperial dynasty of China. Founded in 206 BC when the rebel leader Liu Bang successfully ended the Qin Dynasty, the Han Dynasty lasted for four centuries and is considered a golden age in Chinese history.
Persian Empire
the South Asian empire established by Cyrus the Great in the 6th century bc and overthrown by Alexander the Great in the 4th century bc. At its height it extended from India to Europe
Great Royal Road
an ancient highway reorganized and rebuilt by the Persian king Darius the Great of the Achaemenid Empire in the 5th century BC. Darius built the road to facilitate rapid communication throughout his very large empire from Susa to Sardis.
Polis
Greek city-states
Golden Age of Pericles
480 BC-404 BC. This was a period of Athenian political hegemony, economic growth and cultural flourishing
Delian League
founded in 478 BC, was an association of Greek city-states under the leadership of Athens, whose purpose was to continue fighting the Persian Empire after the Greek victory in the Battle of Plataea at the end of the Second Persian invasion of Greece.
Hellenism
the national character or culture of Greece, especially ancient Greece.
Patricians
The wealthy class of the Roman “Republic” or Empire
Plebians
The commoner class of the Roman “Republic” or Empire
Twelve Tables of Rome
he earliest attempt by the Romans to create a code of law. A law binding on both patrician and plebeian and which consuls would have to enforce.
First Triumvirate
the unofficial coalition of Julius Caesar, Pompey, and Crassus in 60 BC
Second Triumvirate
a coalition formed by Antony, Lepidus, and Octavian in 43 BC.
Pax Romana
the peace that existed between nationalities within the Roman Empire.
Paganism
any of various religions other than Christianity or Judaism or Islamism
Christianity
the religion based on the person and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth, or its beliefs and practices.
The Edit of Milan
An edict made by the Roman emperor Constantine in 313 which recognized Christianity and gave freedom of worship in the Roman Empire.
Classical Period
a golden age for literature and the arts
Zoroastrianism
a monotheistic pre-Islamic religion of ancient Persia founded by Zoroaster in the 6th century BC.
The Silk Road
is a series of trade and cultural transmission routes that were central to cultural interaction through regions of the Asian continent connecting the West and East by linking traders, merchants, pilgrims, monks, soldiers, nomads, and urban dwellers from China to the Mediterranean Sea
Polytheism
the belief in or worship of more than one god.
Confucianism
a system of philosophical and ethical teachings founded by Confucius and developed by Mencius.
Daoism
a Chinese philosophy based on the writings of Lao-tzu ( fl. 6th century BC), advocating humility and religious piety.
Legalism
excessive adherence to law or formula.
Hinduism
a major religious and cultural tradition of South Asia, developed from Vedic religion.
Judaism
the monotheistic religion of the Jews.
Theravada (Hinayana)
the more conservative of the two major traditions of Buddhism
Mahayana Buddhism
The tradition emerged around the 1st century AD and is typically concerned with altruistically oriented spiritual practice as embodied in the ideal of the bodhisattva.
Four Noble Truths
the four central beliefs containing the essence of Buddhist teaching.
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